UAP and OIL:
Report on the work of the Core Programme for Universal Availability of Publications and the Office for International Lending 1979 - 2002
There has been an "IFLA Office" at the British Library, Boston Spa, for well over 20 years. This report highlights some of the major achievements of the IFLA Offices for UAP and International Lending during their lifetime. It also includes, as an appendix, a full listing of all UAP publications and a list of the UAP Seminars that have been held. It will also try to clarify the wide confusion over the relationship between OIL and UAP. What do the acronyms OIL and UAP actually stand for? Are they the same programme with different names? Different programmes with the same staff? Part of the British Library Copyright Office? Whatever the inaccuracies, many people in the library world are familiar with the concept of UAP and most would be able to come up with 'international', 'publications', 'availability', 'ILL' or 'lending', to fit some of the words in the acronyms.
The Core Programme for the Universal Availability of Publications was started
in the late 1970s by Maurice Line, following a proposal by Donald Urquart some years earlier. The reasoning went that if you were aiming for a systematic recording of all library collections (the aim of the Core Programme for UBC), then there was also a need to improve the availability of those collections for all potential users. National bibliographies were all very well, but did they in fact help the user to obtain the library material required? Or did they simply raise awareness of the existence of relevant material and increase demand, which could not always be met? The aim of the new Core Programme for UAP was to improve access to published material, whether this meant improving local publishing and distribution patterns in developing countries; identification of effective strategies for the retention of last copies for preservation purposes; transfer of documents across national boundaries; or the traditional means of sharing library resources, good old interlibrary loan. In 1980, IFLA's second core programme was formally established at the British Library at Boston Spa.
The UAP programme was originally rooted within the Office for International Lending, sharing its staff and resources. The Office for International Lending had been established some years earlier, as a gift to IFLA from the BL Board, with the specific purpose of improving procedures for international lending and document supply between libraries. In June 1979, when an extra full-time officer was recruited, the functions, staffing and financing of the UAP programme were fully separated from those of the Office for International Lending (OIL), which continued to be supported wholly by the British Library. The Programme Management Committee confirmed in December 1980 the formal designation of an International Office for UAP, in line with the International Office for UBC in London.
Although the OIL and UAP programme have different origins, were funded differently and had different aims, it has always proved difficult to keep the two functions separated in people's minds, and, often, in the work that has been undertaken. Certainly in more recent years, the two arms were inextricably linked, despite constant protestations by each Director that they should be considered as separate functions. Since ILL is a key element of UAP, which relies on ready sharing of material among libraries, this report looks jointly at the work of the two offices.
The work of the Offices for UAP and OIL seems to have fallen into three main areas:
- Promotion of the principle of UAP
- Projects that support and encourage UAP
- Development of guidelines and practical tools to support effective international ILL
Throughout the life of the Office, one of the key activities carried out by the programme was the series of UAP workshops held in different regions of the world. The aim of the workshops was to bring together senior representatives of the library and publishing worlds and governments, in order to bring about real improvements in the provision of published material to the region's citizens. Discussion on the local publishing and book supply industries supported the consideration of national library and information networks. Interlibrary loan was always a key element of these Seminars, and some important initiatives have emerged.
The concept and aims of UAP were promoted very strongly in the early years, beginning with a "call to arms" in the form of the International Congress on UAP, which took place in Paris, May 3-7 1982. The Congress attracted 178 participants from 64 member states of UNESCO, and resulted in a list of 48 recommendations aimed at governments, international organisations, the World Book Congress, national libraries and professional library staff.
After this, the first UAP Seminar appears to have been the UAP Training Seminar , held at the British Library Lending Division in February 1983. Its aim was to "provide a number of individuals of suitably senior status from various parts of the world with a broad and deep understanding of UAP." This was the first of many such seminars to be held, often concentrating on a single geographic area, where barriers to improving access would be similar for all libraries, and where, hopefully, seminar participants could work together to seek solutions.
The seminars were useful for UAP staff too in identifying recurring barriers to effective interlibrary loan and document delivery. It was discussions such as these that highlighted the enormous difficulties experienced by libraries in paying for their ILL requests, and of course, the now famous (or infamous?) IFLA Voucher Scheme was eventually developed to overcome this particular barrier.
In addition to the discussion and debate that was so valuable for the promotion of UAP, the UAP Office produced a series of publications to support education in UAP. The Model Handbook for Interlending & Copying; Guide to the organisation of meetings on UAP; Guidelines for national planning for the availability of publications; and Universal Availability of Publications: a programme to improve the national and international provision of documents are all important UAP documents.
A list of all UAP Seminars and UAP publications is given at Appendix 1.
As well as the direct promotion of the concept of UAP, the Office undertook a range of projects which all tied in with the aim of improving access to published material. One of the difficulties with UAP - and especially with its name - was the all-encompassing nature of the concept, which meant that virtually any scenario relating to improving access could be deemed to be of UAP interest. While the Programme was enormously wide-ranging, the projects carried out were necessarily more focussed and of value only to specific sectors of the library world. Some of the projects undertaken by the Office had rather tenuous links with the original ideals of UAP, but many sat happily with the aims of the Office to promote access and improve availability.
Of the projects carried out, the following are worth a mention:
- IFLA/UNESCO Survey on Digitisation and Preservation
This very big project was successful in bringing together two of IFLA's established core activities to work on a co-operative project, identifying and listing major library cultural heritage collections that had been digitised. The two major reasons for digitising material are the preservation of documents and the improvement in access to those documents. It was entirely appropriate that the Core Programmes for UAP and for Preservation and Conservation (PAC) should work together with UNESCO, to develop a web directory of those digitised collections which would provide instant access. The Directory was handed over to UNESCO on completion, and is now accessible on the UNESCO website at http://www.unesco.org/webworld/digicol/.
- Union catalogues
As well as improving access to published documents, the UAP programme aimed to tackle some of the wider areas that support document provision. The project to develop a Worldwide Directory of National Union Catalogues (a union catalogue of union catalogues) which would help libraries access the collections of the major libraries of the world, was another example of co-operation between different working elements of IFLA. With the support of the Sections on Serials, on Document Delivery & Interlending and on Acquisitions & Collection Development, the UAP core programme created the Directory, which lists the major national and regional union catalogues in every country, and reports on their level of accessibility for libraries in other countries. Where possible, the catalogues are acessible directly from the Directory site. This project is being taken over by the Section on Serials, with a view to updating it.
- IFLA Twinning Project
In response to regular enquiries from libraries in various parts of the world, a database was established in 1997 to help libraries find partners with similar areas of interest. Dubbed the "Dateline for librarians", the aim was to enable libraries to share their experience and knowledge with other libraries working in the same field. This would be particularly worthwhile for North-South co-operation, where established partnerships might lead to improved access to publications for the less developed library and a greater awareness of the challenges and working practices for both libraries, as well as an exchange of experience and knowledge. There was a huge interest in the project and many applications for partners were received. However, because of the very diverse nature of the libraries listed on the database, the number of successful matches was small, and the longer-term success of those partnerships was even smaller. Although a partnership with a like-minded library was appealing to many, when it came to a commitment of those two most crucial resources - time and funding - many of the partnerships floundered, and the project was finally laid to rest.
While the UAP Seminars focussed very closely on particular regions of the world, and supported library developments in perhaps just one or two countries, some of the more practical initiatives of the OIL/UAP programme have had more wide-ranging results.
The development of a set of principles which would regulate international ILL is one idea which spans UAP and OIL. The aim of the principles is to encourage libraries to share their resources with libraries in other countries, and to provide some guidance in doing so. The first and over-riding principle is that each country should accept responsibility for supplying copies of its own publications to any other country. The concept of universal availability of publications relies on this principle, since national publications must be available locally, if there is to be any chance of them also being available to users in other countries. Another principle recommends that particular effort should be made to satisfy requests received from libraries in less developed countries, in support of UAP. The International Lending and Document Delivery: Principles and Guidelines for Procedure were first agreed by IFLA in 1954, and have been revised from time to time since then. A major revision was undertaken in 2001 by the OIL and the Section on Document Delivery & Interlending, and a small sub-committee of that Section has been established to look after the Principles after the closure of UAP.
In 1975, the Office produced the first Brief Guide to Centres of International Lending & Photocopying. This Directory listed national lending centres for every country of the world (or national library where there was no national loan centre), and provided information on how ILL requests should be handled in each country. Users could ascertain whether a national loan centre existed, or which body held responsibility for co-ordinating lending in that country. Preferred request methods, likely charges and payment options were also provided. By 1995, the 5th edition was in production, and enquiries are still regularly received asking when the next edition will be available.
The IFLA Loan/Photocopy Request Form is perhaps one of the OIL's most famous and enduring products. The request form has been in use since at least 1975 and probably for much longer. It is recognised by ILL departments the world over, accepted by most of them as a standard format for paper ILL requests, and continues to be used by many libraries despite so much electronic progress in the world of ILL.
Use of this paper request form has clearly declined in recent years, and the move by libraries to other, electronic, request methods can be used as an example of the difficulty the UAP Core Programme has experienced in remaining relevant in the fast-moving bright new world of ILL. In the early years of UAP, most communication was carried out by letter or telephone, and email had not been invented. International interlibrary loan requests were sent almost always by post, and national boundaries were clear and significant. ILL was seen as the Cinderella of library operations and international lending was often seen as the triumph of optimism over a huge number of obstacles: lengthy delays at all stages of the request and supply process, difficulty in finding out which library might hold the item you required and an enormous reluctance on the part of most libraries in the world to lend abroad. The Office for International Lending prided itself on encouraging libraries to be more co-operative in support of international resource-sharing, and was in a position to offer advice and practical help in this area. International ILL was such a difficult operation that any small improvements were welcomed with open arms by those trying to obtain material from abroad. The Office was able to gather fairly comprehensive statistical information on the flow of ILL requests around the world, such was the limited nature of that activity.
By the mid-1990's of course, everything had changed. Interlibrary loan was now an exciting, dynamic operation, new electronic options for sending and responding to requests and for sending the item were coming thick and fast. There was no longer only one option for sending ILL requests, but many. And commercial document suppliers, coupled with improved access to library catalogues across national boundaries and fast cheap options for sending copies, meant that there were whole areas of ILL in which the OIL did not have the expertise to participate.
But there are still several areas of ILL where progress has been slow. In the international loan of returnable items (traditional lending), long delays in the processing of requests, a persistent reluctance to lend material abroad and slow postal delivery rates still mean that this process is less than satisfactory. And the challenge of making payments for interlibrary loan transactions between countries remains the most problematic area. International payment problems are not limited to libraries of course, but anything that can be done to help libraries avoid the high bank charges, poor exchange rates and long delays in payment transactions can only be a good move.
In 1995 after much discussion and some opposition, the IFLA Voucher Scheme for International ILL Payments was developed and implemented. The Scheme was developed in response to the regular cry for help in overcoming international payment barriers in ILL. But it was by no means obvious that this invention would be successful. The Scheme required libraries to buy payment 'tokens' in bulk in advance, and a critical mass of users would be needed to make the system successful. Seven years on and it is clear that the Voucher Scheme has gone a long way in improving the ILL payment options for many libraries. Over 1000 libraries are listed on the Voucher Scheme database, and around 67,000 full and 23,000 half vouchers have now been sold to the international ILL community. Although its success has brought with it its own challenges in managing its administration and production costs, the Voucher Scheme is a model of simplicity and is a reflection of what the OIL has always done best: small practical solutions to specific ILL challenges. The Voucher Scheme has been identified as one of the few items of existing work that should be continued after the closure of the Office, and the management of the Scheme will transfer to IFLA Headquarters by the end of March 2003.
The IFLA Core Programme for UAP and the Office for International Lending have achieved a great deal during their lifetime. Often seen as a single function by many, they had very different approaches to similar challenges. The OIL tried to offer practical solutions to practical problems, specifically in the field of ILL. For ILL practitioners needing information about lending policies in other countries, the Office was an essential resource. The guidelines, finding tools, request forms and, of course, the Voucher Scheme, have all offered invaluable support in the ILL arena.
Universal Availability of Publications, on the other hand, is an ideal, a lofty concept, an achievement towards which all libraries should be striving. It is one of the key underlying tenets of libraries, for if libraries are not in the business of providing access to publications, then what is their raison d'Ítre? The very hugeness of this aim has sometimes made it difficult to assess the impact of the UAP core programme and difficult for smaller parts of IFLA to identify themselves with it in any practical way. But the impact and practical achievement that UAP has had during its lifetime cannot be underestimated, and it is to be hoped that the aims behind the programme continue to be expressed and acted upon in the future.
Meetings and Seminars
International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications, held Paris, 3-7 May 1982, organised by IFLA, UNESCO PGI and UNISIST.
UAP training seminar, held British Library Lending Division, February 1983
Seminar on Interlibrary Lending in Western Europe, held British Library Lending Division, 26-28 September 1983, organised by NORDINFO and BLLD.
UAP Seminar held Nairobi, 1984, participants from Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.
UAP Seminar held New Delhi, 29-31 October 1985, organised by IFLA UAP and Indian Library Association. Participants from Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand.
National UAP Seminar held Colombo, Sri Lanka, 24-25 September 1986.
UAP Seminar held St Lucia, 16-18 October 1986, participants from Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, St Kits, Saint Lucia, St Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago.
Interlending & Document Supply, first international conference held London, 14-16 November 1988.
Seminario sobre disponibilidad universal de publicaciones, national UAP seminar held Bogota, Colombia, 8-10 March 1989.
Interlending & Document Supply, second international conference, held London, 19-21 November 1990.
UAP Seminar held Cairo, 12-14 January 1993, organised by IFLA UAP and ENSTINET. Participants from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan, United Arab Emirates.
Interlending & Document Supply 3rd international conference, held Budapest, 29 March - 3 April 1993.
UAP Seminar Budapest, 29 March - 2 April 1993, organised by IFLA UAP and National Széchényi Library. Participants from Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine.
UAP Seminar held Abidjan, 11-13 July 1994, organised by IFLA UAP and Bibliothèque nationale. Participants from Francophone West Africa.
UAP Seminar held Bangkok, 23-25 January 1995, organised by Thai Library Association and IFLA UAP. Participants from Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
Interlending & Document Supply 4th international conference, held Calgary, 11-14 June 1995, organised by IFLA OIL, the Canadian Library Association and National Library of Canada.
The role of Libraries in Economic Development: an international conference held Ljubljana, 21-23 April 1997, organised by IFLA OIL and Central Technological Library Ljubljana.
Interlending & Document Supply 5th international conference, held Aarhus, 24-29 August 1997, organised by IFLA OIL, Danish Research Library Association and State and University Library, Aarhus.
UAP Seminar held Bangkok, 26 August 1999, organised by IFLA UAP. Follow-up workshop to the first UAP Seminar for South East Asia held in 1995. Participants from Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
UAP Seminar held Buenos Aires, 21-24 September 1999, organised by IFLA UAP and AGBRA. Participants from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela and Mexico.
Interlending & Document Supply 6th international conference, held Pretoria, 25-29 October 1999, organised by IFLA OIL, State Library and University of South Africa.
UAP Seminar held Nouméa, New Caledonia, 17-21 September 2001, organised by IFLA UAP and Secretariat for the Pacific Community.
Interlending & Document Supply 7th international conference, held Ljubljana, 1-5 October 2001, organised by IFLA OIL and National & University Library, Ljubljana.
- National interlending systems: a comparative study of existing systems and possible models, by Maurice Line et al. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1978.
- Patterns of worldwide availability, by Maurice Line and Stephen Vickers. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1980.
- The international provision and supply of publications, prepared by Maurice Line. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1981. (PGI-81/WS/30).
- The availability of publications in individual countries: Bangladesh and Mexico: a pilot study, by Stephen Vickers. IFLA OIL, 1981.
- International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications, Paris, 3-7 May 1982, Main Working Document. Paris: IFLA, UNESCO, 1982.
- International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications, Paris, 3-7 May 1982, Summary of Research of the UAP Programme. Paris: IFLA, UNESCO, 1982.
- International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications, Paris, 3-7 May 1982, Final report. Paris: IFLA, UNESCO, 1982.
- Descriptions of interlibrary lending in various countries: a bibliography of interlibrary lending, by Antonio A Briquet de Lemos. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1982.
- National acquisition policies and systems: a comparative study of existing systems and possible models, by Judith Collins and Ruth Finer. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1982. ISBN 0853501858
- National repository plans and programmes: a comparative study of existing plans and possible models, by Capital Planning Information. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1982. ISBN 0712320016.
- International interlibrary lending: a review of the literature, by Brian Kefford. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1982. ISBN 085350184X.
- Universal Availability of Publications (UAP): a programme to improve the national and international provision and supply of publications, Maurice Line and Stephen Vickers. Munich: KG Saur, 1983 (IFLA Publications No 25)
- Commercial book supply: the availability of book materials through commercial channels, with particular reference to developing countries. John Clews, Maurice Line and Brian Kefford. In: Survey of libraries, publishers and booksellers, Priscilla Oakeshott. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1983.
- Guidelines for national planning for the availability of publications, Stephen Vickers and Maurice Line. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1983. ISBN 0712320148
- Improving the availability of publications: a comparative assessment of model national systems, by Sephen Vickers and Maurice Line. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP and British Library, 1983
- Availability and use of official publications in libraries, prepared by Jack J. Cherns. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1983. (PGI-83/WS/30).
- The availability of publications in the United Kingdom: a state of the art review, by Capital Planning Information. London: British National Bibliography Research Fund, 1984.
- The impact of new technology on the availability of publications: report to IFLA UAP, by Priscilla Oakeshott and Brenda White. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1984. ISBN 0712320245.
- Guide to the organisation of meetings on UAP, prepared by the IFLA International Office for UAP. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1985. (PGI-85/WS/31)
- Measuring the performance of document supply systems, prepared by the IFLA International Office for UAP. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1987. (PGI-87/WS/21).
- "Universal availability of publications and music", Tony Reed. Fontes artis Musicae, vol 35, no 1, Jan-March 1988.
- The impact of new technology on document availability and access, by Marie-France Plassard and Maurice Line. Boston Spa: IFLA UAP, 1988. ISBN 0712320474
- Interlending & document supply: proceedings of the 1st international conference, held London, November 1988. Edited by Graham P Cornish and Alison Gallico. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1989. ISBN 071232061X
- Interlending and document supply in Europe, prepared by Graham P Cornish. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1990. (PGI-90/WS/13)
- Model handbook for interlending and copying. Graham Cornish, 1991. ISBN 07123204-5-8
- East-west information transfer: papers from the Meeting on Interlending and Document Supply between Eastern and Western Europe held at Gosen, February 1991. Edited by Graham P. Cornish and Monika Segbert, 1991, ISBN 0712320911
- Interlending & document supply: proceedings of the 2nd international conference, held London, November 1990. Edited by Alison Gallico. Boston Spa: IFLA OIL, 1991. ISBN 071232089X
- Training modules for interlibrary lending and document supply, prepared by Graham Cornish. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1991. (PGI-91/WS/7)
- The role of national libraries in the new information environment, prepared by Graham P Cornish. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1991 (PGI-91/WS/4)
- Availability of western periodical literature in polish libraries, by Barbara Stefaniak 1992. ISBN 0-7123-2097-0
- Feasibility of a voucher scheme to pay for international interlibrary transactions, prepared by Graham P Cornish and Margaret Barwick. Paris: UNESCO PGI, 1992 (PGI-92/WS/5)
- Workshop on access to Third World journals and conference proceedings: papers from the Workshop held in Barcelona, August 1993. ISBN 0-7-23210-4-7
- Document supply in Eastern Europe: papers from the UAP Workshop held in Budapest, March 1993, edited by Graham P. Cornish and Sara Gould 1994. ISBN 0-7123-2109-8
- Interlending and document supply for developing countries: papers from the Pre-Conference Seminar in Paris, August 1989. Edited by Graham P. Cornish and Sara Gould 1994. ISBN 0-7123210-5-5
- Interlending and document supply: proceeding of the 3rd international conference held in Budapest, March/April 1993. Edited by Graham P. Cornish and Andrew Swires, 1994. ISBN 0-7123210-8-X
- Document supply in Eastern Europe: papers from the UAP Workshop held in conjunction with 3rd Interlending and Document Supply International Conference, Budapest 30-31 March 1993, edited by Graham Cornish and Sara Gould. Boston Spa: IFLA Programme for UAP, 1994. ISBN 0712321098.
- Anglophone Africa seminar on government information and official publications. Selected Papers of the Seminar held at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare, 15-18 December, 1994. Edited by MM Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa 1998, ISBN 0953243923
- A guide to centres of international lending. 5th edition, compiled & edited by Margaret Barwick & Pauline Connolly 1995. ISBN 0-7123-2112-8
- Interlending & Document Supply: proceedings of the 4th international conference held Calgary, June 1995. Edited by Judy Watkins 1995. ISBN 0-7123213-8-1
- From palm leaves to PCs: library development in South East Asia: papers from the UAP Workshop held in Bangkok, January 1995. Edited by Sara Gould and Judy Watkins 1995. ISBN 0-7123-21411
- Towards a more efficient and effective interlibrary lending and document delivery in Africa: proceedings of an IFLA Seminar on Interlibrary Lending & Document Delivery in Developing Countries held in Ghana, April 1996. Edited by Victoria Dodoo and John O. Amekuedee, ISBN 0-9532439-0-7
- Guide to centres of international document delivery. 5th edition, compiled and edited by Margaret Barwick and Pauline Connolly, 1996. ISBN 0-7123214-5-4
- Charging for document delivery and interlending: papers from the IFLA Workshop on Charging, held during the IFLA Conference, August 1996. Edited by Sara Gould. 1997, ISBN 0-7123-2151-9
- Copyright in libraries: global concerns, local solutions: papers from a Pre-Conference Seminar held in Tianjin, and those presented at a Conference of the Section on Document Delivery and Interlending, August 1996. Edited by Judy Watkins 1997, ISBN 0-7123-2150-0
- The role of libraries in economic development: papers from the Conference held in Ljubljana, April 1997. Edited by Judy Watkins and Pauline Connolly 1997. ISBN 0-7123215-3-5
- Interlending and document supply: proceedings of the 5th international conference held Aarhus, August 1997: Resource Sharing Possibilities & Barriers. Edited by Dave Johnson and Sara Gould 1998. ISBN 09532439-15
- Interlending and document delivery in developing countries: brief papers from the Workshop held during the IFLA General Conference in Amsterdam, 20 August 1998, edited by Sara Gould, 1998. ISBN 0-9532439-3-1
- Solving collection problems through repository strategies: proceeding of an International Conference held in Kuopio, Finland, May 1999. Edited by Pauline Connolly 1999. ISBN 0-9532439-4X
- Parabaik and megabyte: measuring progress in library development in South East Asia: papers presented at two workshops during the IFLA Conference, Bangkok, August 1999. Edited by Sara Gould. ISBN 0-9532439-82
- Access to information in Latin America: papers from the UAP workshop held Buenos Aires, September 1999
- The digital library: challenges and solution for the new millennium: proceeding of an International Conference held in Bologna, Italy, June 1999, edited by Pauline Connolly and Denis Reidy 2000. ISBN 0-9532439-7-4
- Interlending and document supply: proceeding of the 6th Interlending & Document Supply International Conference, held Pretoria 25-29 October 1999. Empowering Society through the Global Flow of Information, edited by Sara Gould, 2000. ISBN 09532439-9-0
- Interlending and document supply: providing access through co-operation: proceeding of the 7th Interlending & Document Supply International Conference, held Ljubljana 1-5 October 2001, edited by Pauline Connolly, 2002. ISBN 0-953856305
Latest Revision: March 07, 2003
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions