Limitations and Exceptions worldwide

The WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions for Libraries and Archives by Kenneth Crews (2008) looked at the statutes of 149 of the 184 WIPO Member States and found that the provision of exceptions vary around the world:

  • 21 countries do not have library and archive exceptions at all;
  • 27 countries have general exception solely for libraries;
  • 74 countries have exceptions for copying for research or study;
  • 72 countries have exceptions for copying for preservation provisions;
  • 67 countries have exceptions for copying for replacement of worn out originals no longer available for purchase;
  • 17 countries have exceptions for document supply;
  • 6 countries have exceptions for loans between libraries; and 
  • 26 countries have exceptions for legal workarounds for anti-circumvention of Technological Protection Measures.

For examples onhow limitations and exceptions affect the work of libraries worldwide please see the toolkit

Last update: 28 February 2013