IFLA recommends the adoption of subject classification schemes for arrangement of the national bibliography. Classification schemes may be directly related to the subject scheme used or independent schemes. There is increasing interest in the potential of classification schemes to identify concepts in a linguistically and culturally neutral way.

Examples of widely used, universal classification schemes include:

  • Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). The most widely used universal classification scheme in the world. About 60 national bibliographies are organized by the DDC system which has been translated into over 30 languages.
  • Universal Decimal Classification (UDC). UDC is a popular and widely used classification scheme. It is used over 130 countries around the world and is has been translated into over 40 languages.
  • Library of Congress Classification (LCC). LCC is commonly used in academic libraries across the world.