Glossary of terms and abbreviations and useful links (A-H)
AACR2 -Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition. AACR (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition) is a major international standard for the cataloguing of all types of materials collected by general libraries. It was the cataloguing standard used by the British Library and also throughout the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA. It has also been adopted in full or in part by 56 other countries around the world. It has been replaced by RDA – Resource Description and Access.
AAP-Association of American Publishers
Access point control, see Authority control
ALA – American Library Association
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition, see AACR2
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
ASCII -American Standard Code for Information Interchange
APA – American Psychological Association
ARK -Archival Resource Key. ARK is a Uniform Resource Locator that is a multi-purpose identifier for information objects of any type
Authority control -The procedures by which consistency of form is maintained in the headings (names, uniform titles, series titles, and subjects) used in a library catalogue or file of bibliographic records through the application of an authoritative list, called an authority file, to new items as they are added to the collection. (Reitz, 2004, p. 53)
AUTOCAT – AUTOCAT is a semi-moderated international electronic discussion list. It serves as an electronic forum for the discussion of all questions relating to cataloguing and authority control in libraries.
Bibliographic control -A broad term encompassing all the activities involved in creating, organizing, managing, and maintaining the file of bibliographic records representing the items held in a library or archival collection, or the sources listed in an index or database, to facilitate access to the information contained in them. Bibliographic control includes the standardization of bibliographic description and subject access by means of uniform catalogue code, classification systems, name authorities, and preferred headings; the creation and maintenance of catalogues, union lists, and finding aids; and the provision of physical access to the items in the collection. (Reitz, 2004, p. 69)
Bibliographic record – An entry representing a specific item in a library catalogue or bibliographic database, containing all the data elements necessary for a full description, presented in a specific bibliographic format. In modern cataloguing, the standard format is machine-readable, but prior to use of computers, the traditional format was the catalogue card. (Reitz, 2004, p. 71)
Bibliographic resource – An expression or manifestation of a work or an item that forms the basis for bibliographic description. A bibliographic resource may be in any medium or combination of media and may be tangible or intangible. (ISBD(CR), p. 3)
BIC -Book Industry Communication
BNB -British National Bibliography
BnF -La Bibliothèque nationale de France (The French national Library)
Book trade -The operations and arrangements that exist in a specific country for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of books to the public, including publishers and their associations, printers and binders, retail booksellers and their trade associations, jobbers and dealers, and the generally accepted practices, standards, and codes governing their activities. Statistics on the U.S. book trade can be found in The Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac. Directory information can be found in the annual American Book Trade Directory, also published by R.R. Bowker. (Reitz, 2004, p. 97)
Cataloguing (cataloging) – The process of creating entries for a catalogue. In libraries, this usually includes bibliographic description, subject analysis, assignment of classification notation, and all the activities involved in physically preparing the item for the shelf, tasks usually performed under the supervision of a librarian trained as a cataloguer. (Reitz, 2004, p. 122)
Cataloguing-In-Publication (CIP) – CIP was pioneered in the U.S. Library of Congress in 1971. The British programme, which closely resembles the US system, became fully operational in 1977. The aim of the programme is to provide bibliographic data for new books in advance of publication, and it depends heavily on the voluntary co-operation of publishers. Records are compiled from information supplied by publishers on a standard data sheet. The record also appears in the book itself, usually on the verso of the title-page. (Prytherch, 2005, p. 115)
CDL -California Digital Library
CDNL -Conference of Directors of National Libraries
CD-ROM -Compact Disk Read Only Memory
CERL -Consortium of European Research Libraries
CNRI -Corporation for National Research Initiatives
Copyright -The exclusive right given by law to authors, composers or publishers to sell, reproduce or publish a work during a stated period of time. It is a form of protection for works, such as novels and journal articles, which result from the skill and labour of a creator, and for other subject matter which results from the investment of a producer, such as a film. (Mortimer, 2001, p. 50)
CQL -Common Query Language
Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata: Final Report of the PREMIS (PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies) Working Group – This publication includes the PREMIS Working Group Final Report, the Data Dictionary, and Examples. The report and the PREMIS Data Dictionary version 1.0 are the culmination of nearly two years of effort by PREMIS members. This Data Dictionary defines and describes an implementable set of core preservation metadata with broad applicability to digital preservation repositories. This report is intended to put the Data Dictionary into context, explain the underlying assumptions and data model, and provide additional information about the meaning and use of semantic units defined in the Data Dictionary.
DC -Dublin Core
DCMI -Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
DCMI Element Set – The Dublin Core metadata element set is a standard for cross-domain information resource description. It provides a simple and standardised set of conventions for describing things online in ways that make them easier to find. Dublin Core is widely used to describe digital materials such as video, sound, image, text, and composite media like web pages. Implementations of Dublin Core typically make use of XML and are Resource Description Framework based. Dublin Core is defined by ISO in 2003 ISO Standard 15836, and NISO Standard Z39.85-2007. The more comprehensive document “DCMI Metadata terms” includes the latest and authoritative term declarations for the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1.
DCMI Metadata Terms – This document is an up-to-date, authoritative specification of all metadata terms maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative – elements, element refinements, encoding schemes, and vocabulary terms (the DCMI Type Vocabulary).
DCMI Type Vocabulary – The DCMI Type Vocabulary provides a general, cross-domain list of approved terms that may be used as values for the Resource Type element to identify the genre of a resource. The terms documented here are also included in the more comprehensive document “DCMI Metadata Terms”.
DDC -Dewey Decimal Classification – The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system, devised by library pioneer Melvil Dewey in the 1870s and owned by OCLC since 1988, provides a dynamic structure for the organization of library collections. Now in its 23rd edition, and available in print and Web versions, the DDC is the world’s most widely used library classification system. The DDC provides a logical system for organizing every item in your library’s unique collection, offer library users familiarity and consistency of a time-honoured classification system used in 200,000 libraries worldwide. The DDC provides meaningful notation in universally recognized Arabic numerals, welldefined categories and hierarchies, and a rich network of relationships among topics.
Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources – General resources and indices.
Digital publication, see Electronic publication
Digital resource, see Electronic resource
DOI – Digital Object Identifier
DTD -Document Type Definition
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, see DCMI
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, see DCMI Element Set
Dublin Core Metadata Terms, see DCMI Metadata Terms
Dublin Core Type Vocabulary, see DCMI Type Vocabulary
DVD -Digital Video Disc
E-publication, see Electronic publication
E-resource, see Electronic resource
EAD – Encoded Archival Description
Electronic publication – A work in digital form capable of being read or otherwise perceived, distributed to the general public electronically. The category includes electronic journals and e-prints, electronic magazines and newspapers, electronic books, Web sites, Weblogs, etc. Some electronic publications are online versions of print publications; others are “born digital”. Synonymous with e-publication. (Reitz, 2004, p. 244)
FRAD – Functional Requirements for Authority Data. Conceptual model serves as the basis for relating specific attributes and relationships (reflected in the record as discrete data elements) to the various tasks that users perform when consulting authority records.
FRANAR – Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records.
FRBR – Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. Conceptual model serves as the basis for relating specific attributes and relationships (reflected in the record as discrete data elements) to the various tasks that users perform when consulting bibliographic records.
FRSAD – Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data
Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records, see FRANAR
Functional Requirements for Authority Data, see FRAD
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, seeFRBR
Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data, seeFRSAD
HTML – HyperText Markup Language. A format of a markup language that controls the display of web pages i.e. font size, type, background and text colours.