Glossary of terms and abbreviations and useful links (L-N)
LCC – Library of Congress Classification.
Library of Congress Classification Outline – The list contains the letters and titles of the main classes of the Library of Congress Classification. Clicking on any class to view an outline of its subclasses. The complete text of the classification schedules in printed volumes may be purchased from the Cataloguing Distribution Service. Online access to the complete text of the schedules is available in Classification Web, a subscription product that may also be purchased from the Cataloguing Distribution Service.
LCCN – Library of Congress Control Number
LC/NACO – Library of Congress Name Authority Cooperative Program
LC/NACO Authority File – International name authority file maintained by U.S. Library of Congress composed of authority data contributed by LC and member institutions of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging.
Legal deposit – Legal deposit is a statutory obligation imposed on publishers, distributors and, in some countries, printers to give copies of publications to the national collection.
LIBIS – Lithuanian Integrated Library Information System
MADS – Metadata Authority Description Schema . The Library of Congress’ Network Development and MARC Standards Office, with interested experts, developed the Metadata Authority Description Schema (MADS), an XML schema for an authority element set that may be used to provide metadata about agents (people, organizations), events, and terms (topics, geographic, genres, etc.). MADS was created to serve as a companion to the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS). As such, MADS has a relationship to the MARC 21 Authority format, as MODS has to MARC 21 Bibliographic – both carry selected data from MARC 21. MADS is expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium . The standard is developed and maintained by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress with input from users.
MARC – Machine Readable Cataloging
MARC 21 – Standard for the representation and exchange data in machine-readable form. The structure of MARC records is an implementation of national and international standards, e.g., Information Interchange Format (ANSI Z39.2) and Format for Information Exchange (ISO 2709). The MARC 21 formats are prepared by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress, in cooperation with Standards, Intellectual Management Office, Library and Archives Canada and the National Bibliographic Service, British Library. Changes to the MARC 21 formats are based upon proposals considered by the ALA ALCTS/LITA/RUSA Machine-Readable Bibliographic Information Committee (MARBI), the Canadian Committee on MARC (CCM) and by the Book Industry Communications (Bibliographic Standards Technical Subgroup, BIC/BSTS).
Metadata – Structured information used to describe information resources/objects for a variety of purposes. Although AACR2/MARC cataloguing is formally metadata, the term is generally used in the library community for non-traditional schemes such as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, the VRA Core Categories, or the Encoded Archival Description (EAD). Metadata can be categorized as descriptive, structural, and administrative. (Reitz, 2004, p. 448)
METS – Metadata Encoding and Transmission Schema. The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard schema is a standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. The standard is maintained by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress and is being developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation.
MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. An official Internet standard that specifies how messages must be formatted so that they can be exchanged between different email systems. In Dublin Core, “Format” Term may be used to determine the software, hardware or other equipment needed to display or operate the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of MIME Media types defining computer media formats). RFC2045, RFC2046 specifies that Content Types, Content Subtypes, Character Sets, Access Types, and conversion values for MIME mail will be assigned and listed by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). Procedures for registering MIME Types can be found in RFC4288 and RFC4289.
MIME Media Types – Media Types and Media Subtypes will be assigned and listed by the IANA.
MLA – Modern Language Association
MODS – Metadata Object Description Schema. The Library of Congress’ Network Development and MARC Standards Office, with interested experts, has developed a schema for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications. As an XML schema, the “Metadata Object Description Schema” (MODS) is intended to be able to carry selected data from existing MARC 21 records as well as to enable the creation of original resource description records. It includes a subset of MARC fields and uses language-based tags rather than numeric ones, in some cases regrouping elements from the MARC 21 bibliographic format. MODS is expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. The standard is maintained by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress with input from users.
NACO – Name Authority Cooperative Program. The name authority component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging.
National bibliography – National bibliography in the modern sense of the word is defined as a cumulation of the authoritative and comprehensive records of the national output (i.e., products of the national publishing industry) of a country, published regularly, and with the least possible delay. It is produced in accordance with international standards by the national bibliographic agency. Publication details and authorship are investigated and verified in detail.
National bibliographic agency (NBA) – The organizational unit established within a country’s library system, which undertakes responsibility for the preparation of the authoritative and comprehensive bibliographic records for each new publication issued in the country, making the records in accordance with accepted international bibliographic standards and publishing them with the shortest possible delay in a national bibliography, which appears on regular basis. (International Federation of Library Associations, IFLA International Office for UBC & UNESCO, 1979, p. 7)
National bibliographic control – The activities to discover, identify and record all the publications produced in a country in order to build up the national library and archival collections, satisfy the information needs of the nation, and contribute to the development of an integrated library, documentation and archival infrastructure. (International Federation of Library Associations, IFLA International Office for UBC & UNESCO, 1979, p. 2)
National imprint – The product of the national publishing industry.
National output – All documents published in a country regardless of format (carrier), e.g., printed, audiovisual or electronic.
NBN – National Bibliography Number
NID – Namespace IDentifier
NISO – National Information Standards Organization
NLM DTD – National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition
NSS – Namespace Specific String