General Resources and Indices

Metadata is data about data. The term refers to any data used to aid the identification, description and location of networked electronic resources. Many different metadata formats exist, some quite simple in their description, others quite complex and rich.

Australia. National Library of Australia. Meta Matters

Ahronheim, Judy. Judy and Magda's List of Metadata Initiatives

Association of American Publishers (AAP). MICI – "Metadata Information Clearinghouse" (Interactive)

Book Industry Communications (BIC). Electronic Rights Trading
Has numerous documents and reports pertaining to rights metadata, identifiers and metadata issues.

Colorado Digitization Project. digital toolbox: metadata

Digital Library Colaboratory Working Groups. Metadata Working Group

EDUCOM. Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS). IMS Metadata

E-Learning Takes Important Step Forward
Metadata Standards Leaders IEEE LTSC-LOM, and DCMI Begin Designing Future Metadata Architecture for Web-based Learning, Education and Training.

IEEE. The Metadata and Data Management Information Page

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4: Document Description and Processing Languages
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC32/WG2 is a WG on metadata

Meta Data Coalition. Meta Data Coalition
"The Meta Data Coalition regroups vendors and users allied with a common purpose of driving forward the definition, implementation and ongoing evolution of a meta data interchange format and its support mechanisms."

U.K. Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN). Metadata

U.K. Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN). Metadata: Mapping between metadata formats
Michael Day. UKOLN, University of Bath.

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
UDDI specifies interfaces for distributed web-based information registries of Web Services. The UDDI initiative also supplies publicly accessible implementations of the specification. The set of UDDI Registers form a distributed database where businesses may register information about themselves and the "Web Services" they offer. Web Services are standardized descriptions of the accessible elements in services offered on the Web.

W3 Consortium. (organization) Metadata and Resource Description

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative


DC-8 Dublin Core Metadata Workshop


DC-6 Dublin Core Metadata Workshop


Weibel, Stuart and Hakela, Juha. DC-5: The Helsinki Metadata Workshop: A Report on the Workshop and Subsequent Developments
Official report of the Helsinki DC Meeting. D-Lib Magazine, February 1998.

Miller, Paul and Tony Gill. DC5: The Search for Santa
Report of the Fifth Dublin Core workshop, held in October 1997 at the National Library of Finland. Ariadne, Issue 12, November 1997.


Weibel, Stu, et. al. The 4th Dublin Core Metadata Workshop Report
D-Lib Magazine, June 1997.

Heery, R., et. al. The 4th Dublin Core Workshop: Notes from UK participants
March, 1997.

Miller, P. and Gill, T. Down Under with the Dublin Core
Ariadne. April, 1997.


Weibel, Stuart and Eric Miller. "Image Description on the Internet: A Summary of the CNI/OCLC Image Metadata Workshop."
D-Lib Magazine, January 1997.


Dempsey, Lorcan and Weibel, Stuart L. The Warwick Metadata Workshop: A Framework for the Deployment of Resource Description
D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996.

Burnard, L., et. al. A Syntax for Dublin Core Metadata: Recommendations from the Second Metadata Workshop
April 1996.

Daniel, Ron and Lagoze, Carl. Extending the Warwick Framework: From Metadata Containers to Active Digital Objects
D-Lib Magazine, November, 1997.

Hakala, Juha H., et. al. Warwick framework and Dublin core set provide a comprehensive infrastructure for network resource description
Report from the Metadata Workshop II, Warwick, UK, April 1-3, 1996.

Thiele, Harold. The Dublin Core and Warwick Framework
D-Lib Magazine, January 1998.

DC Background Documents and Links

Weibel, S., et. al. Dublin Core Metadata for Resource Discovery
RFC 2413. September 1998

Dublin Core Metadata

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: Reference Description

Dublin Core Qualifiers

Hillmann, Diane. Using Dublin Core

Hillmann, Diane, and Guy Teasdale. Guide d'utilisation du Dublin Core

National Archives of Australia. Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS) metadata standard

Baker, Thomas. Metadata Semantics Shared Across Languages: Dublin Cores in languages other than English

Baker, Thomas. Languages for Dublin Core
D-Lib Magazine, December, 1998.

Bearman, D. A Common Model to Support Interoperable Metadata. Progress report on reconciling metadata requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities
D-Lib Magazine, 5(1) January 1999.

Beckett, Dave. Metadata Research

Cathro, W. Metadata: An Overview
A paper given at the Standards Australia Seminar, August 1997.

Cromwell-Kessler, Willy. Dublin Core Metadata in the RLG Information Landscape
D-Lib Magazine, December 1997.

Gill, Tony, Grout, Catherine and Smith, Louise. Visual Arts, Museums and Cultural Heritage Information Standards: a domain specific review of relevant standards for networked information discovery

Grout, Catherine and Tony Gill. Visual Arts, Museums & Cultural Heritage Metadata Workshop Report
The final report from the Visual Arts Data Service Metadata Workshop.

Guenther, Rebecca. Dublin Core Qualifiers/Substructure : a proposal

Ianella, Renato. Admin Core
Internet Draft only. The location of this will change with future version and when the document becomes an IETF RFC.

Knight, Jon and Martin Hamilton. Dublin Core Standard Resource Types

Knight, Jon and Martin Hamilton. Dublin Core Qualifiers

Kunze, John. Encoding Dublin Core Metadata in HTML

Lagoze, Carl. The Warwick Framework: A Container Architecture for Diverse Sets of Metadata
D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996.

Lagoze, Carl, Lynch, Clifford A., and Daniel, Ron Jr. The Warwick Framework: A Container Architecture for Aggregating Sets of Metadata
TR96-1593, June 21, 1996.

Lasher, R. Dublin Core Bibliography
TR96-1593, June 21, 1996.

Lynch, Clifford. The Dublin Core Descriptive Metadata Program: Strategic Implications for Libraries and Networked Information Access
ARL Newsletter 196, February 1998.

Miller, Eric, et. al.. Guidance on expressing the Dublin Core within the Resource Description Framework (RDF)
This is a draft working document.

Miller, Paul. An application of Dublin Core from the Archaeology Data Service
10 July 1996.

Miller, Paul and Daniel Greenstein. Discovering Online Resources Across the Humanities: A Practical Application of the Dublin Core
The final report from the AHDS/UKOLN Resource Discovery Workshop series. October 1997.

Miller, Paul. Metadata for the masses
Ariadne, Issue 5, September 1996.

Nordic Metadata Project. Dublin Core Metadata Template

Open Archives Initiative
A key component of the interoperability architecture is the use of the Dublin Core element set as the required resource discovery metadata vocabulary.

Powell, Andy. Dublin Core Management
Ariadne. July 1977.

Smith, Terence R. The Meta-Information Environment of Digital Libraries
D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996.

Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. On Information Factoring in Dublin Metadata Records
April 1996.

UKOLN. Metadata Resources – Dublin Core

USMARC Advisory Group. Mapping the Dublin Core Metadata Elements to USMARC
D.P. 86.
D.P. 86 Status

Warwick, Cathro. Metadata: An Overview
A paper given at the Standards Australia Seminar, August 1997.

Weibel, Stuart. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Mission, Current Activities, and Future Directions
DLIB Magazine, 6(12) December, 2000.

Weibel, Stuart. A Proposed Convention for Embedding Metadata in HTML
DLIB Magazine, 5(4) April, 1999.

Weibel, Stuart. and Lagoze, Carl. An element set to support resource discovery: the state of the Dublin Core, January 1997
International Journal on Digital Libraries. 1997, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 176-186.

Sampling of DC Projects

Canada. searchBC: Search Engine and Web Directory for British Columbia, Canada

Germany. Metadaten-Projekt = Metadata Project

Germany. SSG-Fachinformation (SSG-FI) Mathematick = Subject Area Information for Mathematics

Germany. The German Educational Resources Server / Deutscher Bildungs-Server

Germany. Math-Net

Germany. Metadata in Physics / Metadaten in der Physik…/

Netherlands. Koninklijke Bibliotheek/ The National Library of the Netherlands

Scandinavia. Netpublikationer

United Kingdom. Art, Design, Architecture & Media Information Gateway and the Visual Arts Data Service

United Kingdom. AHDS Arts & Humanities Data Service

United Kingdom. Dublin Core-based e-Government Metadata Framework

United Kingdom. Project BIBLINK

United Kingdom. Project DESIRE

United Kingdom. SCRAN (Scottish Cultural Resources Access Network)

United States. Digital Library Catalog

United States. Everglades Information Network & Digital Library

United States. Internet Scout Project's Signpost

United States. Medical Metadata Project

United States. Monticello Electronic Library

United States. University of Washington Digital Library

United States. Miscellany: Projects involving development of digital libraries for Federal and Corporate clients
Example: Aviation Safety Digital Library
The example given would be an R&D website containing selected information primarily for general aviation.
Contact: Mike Raugh ([email protected]) and Diane Hillman ([email protected])

Geospatial Metadata Standards

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM Section D18.01.05 Draft Specification Content Specification for Digital Geospatial Metadata

Australia. Environment Australia. Directories and Metadata

Australia. Department of Industry, Science and Resources. Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)

U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). Directory Interchange Format (DIF) Writer's Guide

U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). Global Change Master Directory (GCMD)
DIF directory.

Government Information Locator Service (Gils)

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Guidelines for the Preparation of GILS Core Entries
See also NARA Bulletin 95-3.

School of Information Studies, Syracuse University and United States Geological Survey. The Government Information Locator Service (GILS): Expanding Research and Development on the ANSI/NISO Z3950 Information Retrieval Standard
Final Report. September 7, 1994.

Attachment A: Expanding Research and Development on the NISO Z39.50 Search and Retrieval Standard, Project Abstract

Attachment B: Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS). May 7, 1994

Attachment C: Using Z39.50 in an Application of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS): A Background Paper. May 7, 1994

Attachment D: Using the Z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol in the Internet Environment

Attachment E: The Government Information Locator Service (GILS): Report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force. May 2, 1994

Attachment F: Project Workstatement

Attachment G: Meetings of the GILS Project Team

Attachment H: Stakeholder Contact List

Attachment I: Critical Review of WAIS as an Application Tool for GILS

Attachment J: Interoperability and Conformance Issues in the Development and Implementation of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS)

Attachment K: Requirements for Accommodating Information Systems Information and Records Management Needs within the Proposal for a Government Information Locator Service (GILS) and its Z39.50 Application

Attachment L: Working Implementation Agreement for Open Systems Environment: Part 31 — Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) — Library Applications Special Interest Group

Attachment M: Proposed Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS): Request for Comment

Attachment N: Response to Stakeholder on Suitability of Z39.50 for GILS

Attachment O: USMARC Proposal 94-9: Changes to the USMARC Bibliographic Format to Accommodate Online Systems and Services

Attachment P: Building a Policy for Information Technology Standards

Attachment Q: GILS Forum, An Electronic Discussion Group

Christian, Eliot. Toward a Global Information Locator

Moen, William and McClure, Charles. An Evaluation of the Federal Government's Implementation of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS)
Prepared for the U.S. General Services Administration. June 30, 1997.
Executive Summary.

U.S. Congress. Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Excerpts.)
Section 3511 Establishment and Operation of the Government Information Locator Service through Section 3514 Responsiveness to Congress.

U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS), Federal Information Processing Standard, FIPS PUB 192
[Historic.] The application profile here has been superceded by Version 2.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. OMB Bulletin 95-01
December, 1994?

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. OMB Circular A-130. Establishment of Government Information Locator Service
December 7, 1994.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Establishment of Government Information Locator Service
Draft. 1994?

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Guidance on the Government Information Locator Service
February 6, 1998.

Images and Artifacts

Fourth DELOS Workshop: Image Indexing and Retrieval
August 28-30, 1997: San Miniato.

Getty Art Institute. Categories for the Description of Works of Art

Inventory of Metadata for Multimedia

Program for Cooperative Cataloging. Core Bibliographic Record for Audiovisual Materials Task Group

Research Libraries Group. RLG REACH Element Set for Shared Description of Museum Objects

IAFA/WHOIS++ Templates

Publishing Information on the Internet with Anonymous FTP
This document contains the IAFA templates. Please note that the document, as an Internet Draft has expired. I do not believe it has been adopted as an RFC by the IETF at this time. Later versions may be available from the authors.
Anonymous FTP Archives are a popular method of making material available to the Internet user community. This document specifies a range of indexing information that can be used to describe the contents and services provided by such archives. This information can be used directly by the user community when visiting parts of the archive. Further- more, automatic indexing tools can gather and index this information, thus making it easier for users to find and access it.

Beckett, David. IAFA Templates in use as Internet Metadata

Deutsch, Peter, et. al. Architecture of the WHOIS++ service
RFC 1835. August, 1995.

Faltstrom, P., et. al. How to interact with a Whois++ mesh
RFC 1914. February 1996.

Weider, C., et. al. Architecture of the Whois++ Index Service
RFC 1913. February 1996.

The Common Indexing Protocol
[Historic] Internet Draft. November 1996

ROADS: Resource Organisation and Discovery in Subject-based Services.

ROADS templates were derived from the IAFA/WHOIS templates.

ROADS. Resource Organisation And Discovery in Subject-based services

Heery, R. ROADS: Resource Organisation and Discovery in Subject-based Services
Ariadne, No. 3, 1996.

Heery, R. ROADS templates: how they are used
September 1996.

MARC (Machine-Readable Catalogue)

IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Core Programme (UBCIM). UNIMARC Information

Library of Congress. Library of Congress MARC Office.
Library of Congress. Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC)
Library of Congress. MARC 21 formats

Library of Congress. Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Cataloging. (5th Edition)

Library of Congress. MARCXML, MODS

OCLC. Bibliographic formats and standards


Meta Content Format (MCF)

"The Meta Content Framework (MCF) provides a system for representing a wide range of information about content. The content targeted includes web pages, gopher and ftp files, desktop files, email and structured (i.e., relational and object oriented) databases, etc. MCF is not intended to be an extension of markup languages such as HTML which can be used to hold embedded metadata. Instead it provides a format for holding the metadata externally to the content described. It is possible that metadata embedded in content will be extracted automatically by robots that use the MCF to represent the results of their activities. MCF should be able to represent the metadata that proposals such as the Dublin Core aim to cover."

HotSauce and Meta-Content Format
TidBITS, 25 November 1996.

MCF Tutorial

Meta Content Framework Using XML

Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)

"Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) is an infrastructure for associating labels with Internet content. It was originally designed to help parents and teachers control what children access on the Internet, but it also facilitates other uses for labels, including code signing, privacy, and intellectual property rights management."

W3 Consortium. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS).d

Armstrong, Chris. Metadata, PICS and Quality
Ariadne, No. 9, 1997.

Miller, James S. W3C and Digital Libraries
D-Lib Magazine, November 1996. Contains an overview on the use of PICS to form a base for encoding and transmitting metadata derived from the Dublin core and the Warwick framework.

Resnick, Paul and James Miller. PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship
Communications of the ACM, October 1996. An overview of PICS.

Simple HTML Ontology Extensions (SHOE)

Simple HTML Ontology Extensions (SHOE)

Profile for Access to Digital Collections and BIB-1 Attributes

Library of Congress. Z39.50 Profile for Access to Digital Collections
Draft Seven (Final Draft for Review). May 3, 1996.

Library of Congress. Bib-1 Attribute Set

Lynch, Clifford. Using the Z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol in the Internet Environment
RFC 1729. December 1994.

SGML/XML Based Metadata Initiatives – Overviews

Burnard, Lou and Richard Light. Three SGML metadata formats: TEI, EAD, and CIMI
A Study for BIBLINK Work Package 1.1. December 1996.


Berkeley Finding Aids Conference
April 4-6, 1995.

Library of Congress. Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Official Web Site

Research Libraries Group. RLG EAD Support Site

Society of American Archivists. Committee on Archival Information Exchange. Encoded Archival Description Working Group

University of California, Berkeley. EAD @ UC Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley. Finding Aids for Archival Collections


SearchEngine Watch. How To Use Meta Tags
"Before we start, let's make it clear: Meta tags are not a magic solution."

SearchEngine Watch. Search Engine Features Chart
Chart shows which search engines "support" the use of META tags. What "support" really means is an entirely other issue.

Vancouver Webpages. A Dictionary of HTML META Tags


W3 Consortium. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Activities

W3 Consortium. Introduction to RDF Metadata
Ora Lassila. W3C NOTE 1997-11-13.

W3 Consortium. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification
W3C Proposed Recommendation 05 January 1999.

W3 Consortium. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schema Specification
W3C Candidate Recommendation 27 March 2000.

Beckett, Dave. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Resources

Hardy, Darren. Resource Description Messages (RDM)
[Historic]. July 15, 1996.

Heery, Rachel. What is… RDF?
Ariadne, No. 14, 1998.

Miller, Eric. An Introduction to the Resource Description Framework
D-Lib Magazine, May 1998.

Powell, Andy. RDF and the Dublin Core
UKOLUG, Manchester Conference Centre, July 1998.

Swick, Ralph. Technical Overview of the Resource Description Framework
W3C, WWW7, Brisbane, 18 April 1998.

Swick, Ralph and Dietl, Josef. RDF: Resource Description Framework
W3C, WWW7, Brisbane, 17 April 1998.

W3 Consortium. Resource Description Messages (RDM): Technical Specification
W3C NOTE 24-Jul-96.


The TEI Header

Gaynor, Edward. "Cataloging Electronic Texts: The University of Virginia Library Experience."
Library Resources and Technical Services, 38(4) 1994, pp.403-413.
Describes one of the first efforts to integrate electronic document cataloging in a conventional library environment; discusses aspects of mapping between TEI headers and MARC records.

Giordano, Richard. "The Documentation of Electronic Texts Using Text Encoding Initiative Headers: An Introduction."
Library Resources and Technical Services 38(4) 1994, pp.389-401.
Discusses the benefits and possible faults of the TEI header as a basis for electronic text cataloging. A basic introduction to TEI headers.

Hockey, Susan. Describing Electronic Texts: The Text Encoding Initiative and SGML

Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. and Lou Burnard. Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange
Chicago and Oxford, ALLC/ACH/ACL Text Encoding initiative, 1994.

Collection Level Description

D-Lib Magazine

RSLP Collection Description

Object Identifier Initiatives – Overviews

BIBLINK. Identification – Related resources

Arms, William. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Clifford Lynch's five questions on identifiers
A rejoinder to the Clifford Lynch article below. October 13, 1997.
ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions 194 October 1997.

Berners-Lee, Tim. Document Naming

Cameron, Robert D. Towards Universal Serial Item Names
Technical Report 97-16, School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, December 3, 1997.

Lynch, Clifford. Identifiers and Their Role in Networked Information Applications
A concise, critical and highly recommended overview.
ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions 194 October 1997.

Green, Brian and Bide, Mark. Unique Identifiers: a brief introduction

Payette, Sandra. Persistent Identifiers on the Digital Terrain
RLG DigiNews 2(2) April 15, 1998.

W3 Consortium. (organization) WWW Names and Addresses, URIs, URLs, URNs, URCs


Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System

Paskin, Norman. DOI: Current Status and Outlook
DLIb Magazine. 5(5) May, 1999.


CNRI. Handles and the Handle System
The Handle System® is a distributed computer system which stores names, or handles, of digital items and which can quickly resolve those names into the information necessary to locate and access the items. It was designed by CNRI as a general purpose global system for the reliable management of information on networks such as the Internet over long periods of time and is currently in use in a number of prototype projects, including efforts with the Library of Congress, the Defense Technical Information Center, the International DOI Foundation, and the National Music Publishers' Association.

CNRI. The Handle System, Version 4.0: An Overview

CNRI. The CNRI Handle System Resolver
The CNRI Handle System Resolver will enable Netscape (version 3.0 and higher) and Internet Explorer (version 3.0 and higher) Web browsers to recognize the handle protocol and resolve a handle to an associated URL or other data.

Grass, Judith and Arms, Williams Y. A Syntax for Distributed Object Handles
August 3, 1994.
This document discusses some of the issues involved in designing a format for handles and specifies a syntax. This handle syntax specification conforms with the requirements of the DLS and allows object handles to work easily with a large number of existing Internet navigation tools.

Kahn, Robert and Wilensky, Robert. A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services
May 13, 1995.

Kahn, Robert and Wilensky, Robert. Locating Electronic Library Services and Objects: A Frame of Reference for the CS-TR Project
September 2, 1994.


Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL)


Schwarz, Fritz and Cindy Hepfer. "Changes to the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier and the Effects of Those on Publishers and Libraries"
The Serials Librarian 28(3/4), 1996, pp. 367-70.


Although some of documents here are marked as Internet-Drafts, and as such do not have any current status as Internet standards or even as work-in-progress, they are included in this collection as the documents are a useful historical background for anyone developing a familiarity with the range of issues and approaches being examined for Internet resource discovery. Expired Internet Drafts should not be quoted nor referred to as representative of current or future practice.

Active IETF Working Groups
RFC Index


[email protected] Mail Archives

IETF Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) Working Group
Note: The URI WG is now closed and the work being distributed to other groups.

Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW.
A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web. RFC 1630. June 1994.

A Vision of an Integrated Internet Information Service
RFC 1727. December 1994.

Functional Recommendations for Internet Resource Locators
RFC 1736. February 1995.

Uniform Resource Locators (URL)
RFC 1738. December 1994.

Relative Uniform Resource Locators
RFC 1808. June 1995.

An LDAP URL Format
RFC 1959. June 1996.

Uniform Resource Locators for Z39.50
RFC 2056. November 1996.

Daniel, Ron and Mealling, Michael. Resolution of Uniform Resource Identifiers using the Domain Name System
RFC 2168. June 1997.

Location-Independent URLs or URNs considered harmful
[Historic] Internet Draft.
This document describes a means by which location-independent access to resources can be provided, without creating a new class of resource names. Instead, a resolution service is proposed for existing URLs, which allows information providers to advertise meta-information about a resource named by a URL, and/or alternate locations from which that particular resource might be accessed. Depending on your point of view, the approach described in this document might be taken as one or more of: (a) an alternative solution to the "URL problem", (b) a strategy for gradual transition from URLs to URNs, or (c) a worst-case scenario in the event that URN adoption takes too long.

Uniform Resource Agents (URA's)
[Historic] Internet Draft.
This paper proposes Uniform Resource Agents (URA's) as a means of specifying composite net-access tasks. Tasks are described as "composite" if they require the construction and instantiation of one or more Uniform Resource Locators (URL's) or Uniform Resource Names (URN's), and/or if they require transformation of information returned from instantiating URL's/URN's. The paper presents the underlying concepts of URA's, proposes an architecture, and introduces a prototype application that has been built following the general principles of these URA's.

Uniform Resource Locators for Z39.50
[Historic] Internet Draft.

Mailserver URL Specification
[Historic] Internet Draft.
A new URL scheme, "mailserver", is defined. It allows mail client software to create RFC822 mail messages from a URL.

finger URL Specification
[Historic] Internet Draft.
A new URL scheme, "finger", is defined. It allows client software to request information from finger servers that conform to RFC 1288.


Universal Resource Names HyperNews Archive

Sollins, Karen and Masinter, Larry. Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names
RFC 1737. December 1994.

Moats, R. URN Syntax
RFC 2141. May 1997.

The URN Implementors. Uniform Resource Names: A Progress Report
D-Lib Magazine, February 1996.

Gulbrandsen, A. and P. Vixie. A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)
RFC 2052. October 1996.

Daigle, Leslie L., Patrik Faltstrom and Renato Iannella. A Framework for the Assignment and Resolution of Uniform Resource Names
Internet Draft. June 13, 1996.

Daniel, Ron. Conventions for the Use of HTTP for URN Resolution
[Historic] Internet Draft. November, 1996.

Sollins, Karen. Requirements and a Framework for URN Resolution Systems
[Historic] Internet Draft. November, 1996.

Browne, Shirley and Keith Moore. Issues Concerning URN Assignment and Resolution
[Historic] Internet Draft. July 1995.
A number of schemes have been proposed over the past year or so for assigning and resolving Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and for associating meta-information with URNs. The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Working Group is currently faced with the task of evaluating these schemes. The schemes all claim to satisfy the functional requirements for URNs stated in RFC 1737. A number of additional issues that will be helpful to consider for purposes of evaluation are listed and discussed in this draft. Although this draft is long on questions and short on answers, it attempts to distill the issues on which consensus (even if it's agreement to disagree) needs to be reached before progress on standardization can be made.

Fielding, Roy. How Roy would Implement URNs and URCs Today
[Historic] Internet Draft. July, 1995.
This document describes how the author would implement Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs), such that the basic concepts and technology can be usable by today's World-Wide Web clients and servers. It is intended to identify the key ingredients which make the WWW extensible and open to the introduction of URNs and URCs, and thereby steer the implementors of URI technology toward more consistent solutions.

Hoffman, Paul and Ron Daniel. URN Resolution Overview
[Historic] Internet Draft. October 1995.
This document gives an overview of how Uniform Resource Names (URNs) will be resolved. It describes how different URN resolution schemes will fit together, the requirements for the multiple URN schemes, expectations for URN clients, and other general resolution issues. This document does not cover any specific resolution schemes, the syntax for URNs, or the format of resolution results. It is expected that these issues (and other URN-related topics) will be covered in different Internet Drafts submitted to the IETF URI Working Group.

Hoffman, Paul and Ron Daniel. Generic URN Syntax
[Historic] Internet Draft. October 1995.
This document defines the syntax for Uniform Resource Names (URNs). This syntax is basically the same as the URN syntax described in RFC 1630.

Hoffman, Paul and Ron Daniel. x-dns-2 URN Scheme
[Historic] Internet Draft. October 1995.
This document defines a scheme for resolving Uniform Resource Names (URNs) using the domain name system. The scheme, called x-dns-2, allows URN publishers to create URN resolvers without central registration, and without changing or adding any domain names.

Iannella, Renato, Sue Hoylen and Danny Leong. BURNS: Basic URN Service resolution for the Internet
Research Data Network Cooperative Research Centre. Resource Discovery Unit.

LaLiberte, Daniel and Michael Shapiro. The Path URN Specification
[Historic] Internet Draft. January, 1996.
A new "path" URN scheme is proposed that defines a uniformly hierarchical name space. This URN scheme supports dynamic relocation and replication of resources. Existing DNS technology is used to resolve a path into sets of equivalent URLs, and then one URL is resolved into the named resource.

Madsen, Marc. A Critique of Existing URN Proposals
[Historic] Internet Draft. July 1995.
This document criticises existing URN (Uniform Resource Name) proposals in the light of generality, extensibility, and general futureproofing. The idea is to draw upon the best characteristics of the existing proposals so as to converge on an acceptably functional and nonrestrictive draft specification for both URN syntax and resolution schemes.

McGrath, Robert E. How URNs Work
[Historic] Internet Draft. 18 November 1994.

Shafer, Keith, et. al. URN Services
[Historic] Internet Draft. January, 1996.
This document focuses on the syntax and function of URNs, the nature of registered and unregistered naming authorities, and the relationships of URNs to an open-ended variety of resolution services that might link these objects within the URI architecture.

Sollins, Karen. Thoughts on Standardizing URN Resolution Protocols
[Historic] Internet Draft. June 26, 1995.
The problem of standardizing URN resolution needs to be thought through carefully. If we partition the problem of name resolution, it becomes clearer that the user to resolution service interaction should be standardized. In contrast, in order to support a variety of models, behaviors, and other policies for name resolution services, we must allow for a multiplicity of such services, each perhaps requiring a different protocol between its servers. The URI group can still limit its efforts, but should support more than one such service as a proof of concept that multiple service types can be supported.


URCs are descriptions of Internet-accessible resources. A resource may be described by 0 or more URCs. There is no central URC service, instead URCs provide a standard scheme for different sites to provide descriptions.

Daniel, Ron Jr. and Michael Mealling. URC Scenarios and Requirements
[Historic] Internet Draft. March 24, 1995.
This draft describes the place of the Uniform Resource Characteristic (URC) service within the overall context of Uniform Resource Identification on the Internet. It presents several scenarios illustrating how the URC service might be used. From these usage scenarios, we derive a set of requirements that any proposed URC services must meet.

Daniel, Ron Jr. and Terry Allen. An SGML-based URC Service
[Historic] Internet Draft. June 16, 1995.
The URI Working Group has been developing an architecture where Internet resources are identified using a Uniform Resource Name (URN), and retrieved using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Mapping URNs to URLs is the job of the Uniform Resource Characteristics (URC) service, whose requirements were given in [1]. This paper presents one possible specification for the URC service. This spec provides the means for the URC service to formally specify new capabilities, while retaining the speed that is paramount to the fundamental use of the URC service as the means for URN to URL resolution.

Hoffman, Paul and Daniel, Ron, Jr. Trivial URC Syntax: urc0
[Historic] Internet Draft. October 21, 1995.
This document defines a trivial, machine-parsable Uniform Resource Citiation (URC) syntax that can be returned from the resolution of Uniform Resource Names (URNs). The syntax, called urc0, is also appropriate for any program that can return URCs. More sophisticated URC schemes will be developed later. urc0 is intended to be the simplest possible machine-parsable representation of a URC.

LaLiberte, Dan and Michael Shapiro. Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs)

Selected Background Documents

Australia. Search Engine Working Group (SEWG). Functional Requirements for a Whole-of-Australian-Government Search Architecture
A Report by the Search Engine Working Group (SEWG), January 1998.

Berners-Lee, Tim. Metadata Architecture: Documents, Metadata, and Links

Brodie, Maxine. In the Company of Strangers: Challenges and Opportunities in Metadata Implementation
Beyond the Beginning: The Global Digital Library Conference, London, UK: June 16-17, 1997.

Cap Ventures. "Metadata – What It Is and Why We Need It on the Web."
Gilbane Report on Open Information and Document Systems 5(5) September/October 1997, pp. 1-15.

Caplan, P. You call it corn, we call it syntax-independent metadata for document-like objects
Public-Access Computer Systems Review, 1995 vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 19-23.

Cromwell, Willy. "The Core Record: A New Bibliographic Standard."
Library Resources and Technical Services 38(4) 1994, pp.415-424,
A background paper on the development of a new cataloging level intended to reduce the costs of cataloging; less extensive than conventional full-level cataloging, more detailed than minimal-level cataloging.

Day, Michael. Extending metadata for digital preservation
Ariadne, No. 9, 1997.

Day, Michael. Metadata for Preservation
CEDARS Project Document AIW01.

Day, Michael. CEDARS: digital preservation and metadata
6th DELOS Workshop: Preservation of Digital Information, Tomar, Portugal, 17-19 June 1998.…

Dempsey, Lorcan. Meta Detectors
Ariadne, No. 3, 1996.

Dempsey, Lorcan. Metadata: a UK HE Perspective
Beyond the Beginning: The Global Digital Library Conference, London, UK: June 16-17, 1997.

Dempsey, Lorcan. ROADS to Desire: Some UK and Other European Metadata and Resource Discovery Projects
D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996.

Dempsey, Lorcan and Heery, Rachel. A review of metadata: a survey of current resource description formats
Work Package 3 of Telematics for Research project DESIRE (no. 1004).

Engelbart, Douglas C. Knowledge-Domain Interoperability and an Open Hyperdocument System
Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Work, Los Angeles, CA October 1990, 7-10, pp. 143-156.

Heery, R. Resource description: initial recommendations for metadata formats
Peer review draft of deliverable for Work Package 3 of Telematics for Research project DESIRE). July 1996.

Heery, R. Metadata Formats
BIBLINK Study of Metadata.

Heery, R. Review of metadata formats
Pre-publication draft of article published in: Program,Vol. 30, no.4, October 1996, pp. 345-373.

Iannella, Renato and Waugh, Andrew. Metadata: Enabling the Internet

Irlam, Gordon. Naming
"Naming is one of the most important and most frequently overlooked areas of computer science. In computing it is rumoured: Everything is a naming problem."

Knight, Jon. "Resource Discovery on the Internet."
The New Review of Information Networking 1996, pp. 3-14.

Koch, Traugott and Day, Michael. The role of classification schemes in Internet resource description and discovery
DESIRE Project. February 1997.

Lasher, Rebecca and Cohen, Danny. A Format for Bibliographic Records
RFC 1807. June 1995.

Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Dublin Core/MARC/GILS Crosswalk

Lynch, Clifford, et. al. CNI White Paper on Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval

Lynch, Clifford. Metadata: Moving from Planning to Implementation
Beyond the Beginning: The Global Digital Library Conference, London, UK: June 16-17, 1997.

Moore, Keith, et. al. Bulk File Distribution in the Internet Information Infrastruture

Moore, Keith, et. al. An Architecture for Bulk File Distribution

Powell, Andy. Simple Collection Description

RLG Working Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata. Final report
Mountain View, Calif.: Research Libraries Group, May 1998.

Rothenberg, Jeff. Metadata to Support Data Quality and Longevity…

Rusch-Feja, Diann. Metadata: Standards for Retrieving WWW Documents (and Other Digitized and Non-Digitized Resources)
Library and Information Services in Astronomy III. Eds. U. Grotkopf, H. Andernach, S. Stevens-Rayburn and M. Gomez. 1998, pp. 157-165.

Rust, Godfrey. Metadata: The Right Approach: An Integrated Model for Descriptive and Rights Metadata in E-commerce
D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1998.

Schaefer, Mary Tonne. "Demystifying Metadata: Initiatives for Web Document Description."
Information Retrieval and Library Automation, 33(11), April 1998, pp. 1-5.
A good overview of what librarianship has traditionally brought to the management of information, including issues of description and access, and how these same capabilities are necessary for information in electronic format accessible via wide-area computer networks.

Taylor, Arlene G. "The information universe: Will we have chaos or control?"
American Libraries, 25(7), pp.629-632, 1994.
A good overview of what librarianship has traditionally brought to the management of information, including issues of description and access, and how these same capabilities are necessary for information in electronic format accessible via wide-area computer networks.

U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Intent to Develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for a Data Standard for Record Description Records
Announced in the U.S. Federal Register on February 28, 1995.

Ward, Nigel, et. al. Discussion Paper: Networked Information Retrieval Standards
Resource Discovery Unit, Research Data Network CRC. The University of Queensland, Australia.

Weibel, Stu. Metadata: The Foundations of Resource Description
D-Lib Magazine, July 1995.

Weider, C. Resource Transponders
RFC 1728. December, 1994.

W3 Consortium. The HTML 2.0 META Element

Xu, Amanda. Metadata Conversion and the Library OPAC

Conferences, Workshops & Meetings

European Commission. Third Metadata Workshop Report
Luxembourg, 12 April 1999.

TEI and XML in Digital Libraries
July 30-31, 1998: Washington, D.C.

European Commission. Report of the Second Metadata Workshop
Luxembourg. June 26, 1998.

Digital Libraries 98: Third ACM Conference on Digital Libraries
June 23-26, 1998: Pittsburgh, PA.

11th ERCIM Database Research Group Workshop on Metadata for Web Databases
May 25-26, 1998: Sankt Augustin, Germany.

European Commission. First Metadata Workshop Report
Luxembourg. December 1-2, 1997.

First European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL98)
September 1-3, 1997: Pisa, Italy.

Second IEEE Metadata Conference
September 16-17, 1997: NOAA, Silver Spring MD.

Terminology and Related Topics in Data and Knowledge Sharing
July 29, 1997: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

RLG Metadata Summit
Research Libraries Group. July 1, 1997: Mountain View, California.

Metadata for Electronic Texts Workshop Report: A Report of the Results of the Metadata Workshop Organized by the Oxford Text Archive
May 2, 1997: Oxford, England.

Report of the Joint Workshop on Standards for the Use of Models that Define the Data and Processes of Information Systems
September 9-12, 1996: Bellevue, Washington.

Report of the Workshop on Information Infrastructures for Digital Preservation and an associated Conference on the Preservation and Long Term Accessibility of Digital Materials.
Held in York, England, December 7-8, 2000.
Both the workshop and the conference focussed heavily on emerging models for preservation metadata.

Metadata Tools

Distributed Systems Technology Center (DTSC). Reggie – The Metadata Editor
Open source Perl module to manipulate MARC records in transmission format.

"MetaManage is a simple but flexible tools that allows a metadata framework to be placed around HTML collections. It supports Dublin Core and AGLS standards. The schema is also able to be extended and customised."

Nordic Metadata Project. Dublin Core Metadata Template

OCLC. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative / Tools

ONIX Product Information Standards. Tools for reading
The international standard for representing and communicating book industry product information in electronic form
Built by Editeur

SafeSurf. Meta Generator
This form will generate tags for a multi-valued, multidimensional ratings scheme for classifying Web pages, ie. PICS.

U.K. Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN). DC-dot. Dublin Core Generator
This experimental service will retrieve a Web page and automatically generate Dublin Core HTML <META> tags suitable for embedding in the <HEAD>…</HEAD> section of the page. The generated tags can be edited using the form provided and converted to various other formats (USMARC, SOIF, IAFA/ROADS, TEI headers or GILS) if necessary. Optional, context sensitive, help is available while editing.

U.K. Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN). Metadata Software Tools
A set of PERL scripts used to facilitate the creation of metadata records.

U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). Global Change Master Directory. DIF-Writing Tools

Vancouver Webpages. META builder
This form will generate META tags suitable for inclusion in your HTML document. These tags allow better indexing by robot-driven search engines, such as AltaVista, Infoseek and searchBC.

Vancouver Webpages. A script to build META tags using the Dublin Core types
"There can be more than one scheme for each metadata element. Each scheme.element pair has its own META tag. Thus, you may need to run this script more than once and combine the output."

Search Engines

These search engines support indexing of structured fields and searching of fielded information.

Blue Angel Technologies. MetaStar.
Provides a comprehensive suite of metadata creation, indexing, and search tools.

Information Dimensions, Inc. Basis Webserver
Commercial product. Offers fielded searching.


SWISH-E: Simple Web Indexing Software for Humans – Enhanced
SWISH-E is a free software program that will index document collections and that supports metadata searching.